雅思阅读真题+题目+答案：The Beginnings of Art Therapy
Art therapy is a relative newcomer to the therapeutic field. Art therapy as a profession began in the mid-20th century, arising independently in English-speaking and European countries. Many of the early practitioners of art therapy acknowledged the influence of a variety of disciplines on their practices, ranging from psychoanalysis through to aesthetics and early childhood education. However, the roots of art as therapy go back as far as the late 18th century, when arts were used in the 'moral treatment' of psychiatric patients.
It wasn't until 1942, however, that the British artist Adrian Hill coined the term 'art therapy', as he was recovering from tuberculosis in a sanatorium. He discovered that therapeutic benefits could be derived from drawing and painting whilst recovering. Art, he claimed, could become therapeutic since it was capable of 'completely engrossing the mind... releasing the creative energy of the frequently inhibited patient'. This effect, argued Hill, could in turn help the patient as it would 'build up a strong defence against his misfortunes'.
In 1964, the British Association of Art Therapists was founded. Proponents of art therapy fell into one of two categories: those who believed that the therapeutic effect of art lay in its effectiveness as a psychoanalytic tool to assess a patient through their drawings and those who held the belief that art-making was an end in itself, the creative process acting therapeutically on the patient. The two practices, however, were not incompatible, a degree of overlap occurring between the two. A patient, for example, could produce work that could be analysed for content and forms of self-expression but which could also be a creative outlet at the same time.
Who Benefits from Art Therapy
Art therapy in all its forms has proved effective in the treatment of individuals suffering with a wide range of difficulties or disabilities. These include emotional, behavioural or mental health problems, learning or physical disabilities. These include emotional, behaviour or mental health problems, learning or physical disabilities, neurological conditions and physical illness. Therapy can be provided on a group or individual basis according to the clients' needs. Whether the approach adopted by the therapist is oriented towards a psychoanalytic or creative approach, the effect of therapy is multifold. Partaking in art therapy can raise a patient's self-awareness and enable them to deal with stress and traumatic experience. In addition, art therapy sessions can enhance a patient's cognitive abilities and help the patient enjoy the life-affirming pleasures of making art.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text?
For questions 27-33, write:
TRUE-----if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE------if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN-----If there is no information on this
27 【】 The artist Adrian Hill was strongly influenced by psychoanalytic theories when formulating his ideas on art therapy.
28 【】 Twentieth-century art therapy focuses on treating a client’s mental or physical health problems rather than dealing with moral issues.
29 【】 Approaches to art therapy can be broadly considered to be creative or psychoanalytic; however, practitioners tend to avoid combining the two schools of practice.
30 【】 Clients who respond best to art therapy have a previous background in art.
31 【】 Art therapy sessions are more concerned with expression through art than on the created art itself.
32 【】 Many art therapists are insufficiently qualified as they are not aware of the regulations regarding the practice of art therapy.
33 【】 Art therapy sessions involve limited interaction between therapist and client.
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