雅思阅读真题+题目+答案：Physiology and Criminality
Prior to the 19th century, criminality was considered more of a moral or philosophical issue. Only with the advent of Italian anthropologist Cesare Lombroso did the subject of criminality take a more scientific turn. With the publication of his theories of criminal behaviour, Lombroso advanced the idea that criminal behaviour was attributable to physiological disposition rather than to any existential reasons.
In his 'atavistic form' theory published in 1876, Lombroso claimed that criminality was heritable. He proposed that a distinct biological class of people were prone to criminality. Such people, he claimed, exhibited 'atavistic' or primitive features and were 'throwbacks', bearing physical resemblances to Man's predecessors, the Neanderthals. Characterised by a strong, well-defined jaw and heavy brow, they certainly had little to recommend them in the beauty stakes. With such features, coupled with a tendency towards criminal behaviour, Lombroso's atavistic type was certainly not cut out for social success. Just for good measure, Lombroso also included other distinguishing features to identify criminals, such as bloodshot eyes and curly hair for murderers and thick lips and protruding ears for sex offenders. It has to be wondered, given the unusual appearance with which they were credited, how such individuals would have got close enough to their victims to begin with and, more to the point, how any such criminals hoped to get away with their crime, seeing as they were so readily identifiable.
In hindsight, Lombroso's hypothesis seems ludicrous and deeply flawed. One major failing in Lombroso's theory of an atavistic type is that no proper controls were used in studies designed to support his hypo-thesis. All individuals were confined to a criminal population, no comparison being made at the time with non-criminal control groups. Secondly, the concept of what constitutes a crime is in itself a social construct and can vary cross-culturally and over time. Therefore, the argument that criminal behaviour is inherited is hard to sustain. Finally, in the light of modern genetic research, complex behaviours are not considered to be controlled by single genes, thereby completely ruling out any possibility of inherited criminality.
Surprisingly, given his strong conviction of a biological disposition towards criminality, Lombroso later modified his views to admit environmental influences in determining criminal behaviour. Such views now form the basis of contemporary theories of criminality. In recognition of this fact, contemporary criminologists have bestowed on Lombroso the honorary title 'the father of criminology'. Furthermore, despite scientific failings in his experimental approach, Lombroso is to be credited with shifting the study of criminal behaviour from a moral basis to an empirical one, thereby placing the study of criminology on a more scientific footing.
Complete the timeline diagram below.
Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer.
No longer is criminality confined to a 14【】 realm.
Italian scientist, Lombroso proposes a 15 【】to criminality.
A biological theory of criminality presupposes that such a condition is 16 【】Criminal types are claimed to be 17 d【】istinctive ‘atavistic’ or primitive features.
In common with Lombroso, Sheldon proposes a 18 【】to criminality.
Body types are 19 【】particular dispositions.
Mesomorphs are types considered to have 20 【】
21【】 is now implicated in a biological disposition towards criminality.
An additional ‘Y’ chromosome is associated with more 22【】 males.
The proposed link between criminality and genotype is 23 【】Epps’ study of 1995.
A purely biological basis to criminality is discredited.
Genetic factors arc thought to be moderated by 24【】 elements.
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