雅思阅读真题+题目+答案：speech dysfluency and popular fillers
A speech dysfluency is any of various breaks, irregularities or sound-filled pauses that we make when we are speaking, which are commonly known as fillers. These include words and sentences that are not finished, repeated phrases or syllables, instances of speakers correcting their own mistakes as they speak and "words" such as 'huh', 'uh', 'erm', 'urn', 'hmm', 'err', 'like', 'you know' and 'well'.
Fillers are parts of speech which are not generally recognised as meaningful and they include speech problems, such as stuttering (repeating the first consonant of some words). Fillers are normally avoided on television and films, but they occur quite regularly in everyday conversation, sometimes making up more than 20% of "words" in speech. But they can also be used as a pause for thought.
Research in linguistics has shown that fillers change across cultures and that even the different English speaking nations use different fillers. For example, Americans use pauses such as 'um' or 'em' whereas the British say 'uh' or 'eh'. Spanish speakers say 'ehhh' and in Latin America (where they also speak Spanish) but not Spain, 'este' is used (normally meaning 'this').
Recent linguistic research has suggested that the use of 'uh' and 'um' in English is connected to the speaker's mental and emotional state. For example, while pausing to say 'uh' or 'um' the brain may be planning the use of future words. According to the University of Pennsylvania linguist Mark Liberman, 'um' generally comes before a longer or more important pause than 'uh'. At least that's what he used to think.
Liberman has discovered that as Americans get older, they use 'uh' more than 'um' and that men use 'uh' more than women no matter their age. But the opposite is true of 'um'. The young say 'um' more often than the old. And women say 'um' more often than men at every age. This was an unexpected result because scientists used to think that fillers had to do more with the amount of time a speaker pauses for, rather than with who the speaker is.
Do the following statements agree with the information given in the text?
For questions 27-34, write
TRUE-------if the statement agrees with the information
FALSE-------if the statement contradicts the information
NOT GIVEN---------If there is no information on this
27 ________ Fillers are usually expressed as pauses and probably have no linguistic meaning although they may have a purpose.
28 ________ In general, fillers vary across cultures.
29 ________ Fillers are uncommon in everyday language.
30 ________ American men use ‘uh’ more than American women do.
31 ________ Younger Spaniards say ‘ehhh’ more often than older Spaniards.
32 ________ In the past linguists did not think that fillers are about the amount of time a speaker hesitates.
33 ________ During a coffee break Liberman was chatting with a small group of researchers.
34 ________ Fruehwald does not believe that there are age and gender differences related to ‘um’ and ‘uh’.
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